References on low-/middle-cost sensors

In Curitiba (Brazil), Lars Gidhagen (air quality consultant & AirForAll originator) had been part of a project team that deployed middle-cost sensors for PM2.5 and BC, placed on bicycles that circulated parts of the city. On this, a paper has been published [1].

One of the papers co-authors, Francisco Castelhano (Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal) has also worked with low-cost sensors (ARDUINO platform) and published on the impact of wild fires. Information on wild fires can be received from the Copernicus Atmoshpere Monitoring Service (CAMS), e.g on fires and aerosol concentrations PM2.5: Charts | Copernicus

Lars Gidhagen has recently used a low-cost sensor for measuring PM2.5 in a small village in Vijes (Colombia), influenced by small-scale lime production units. Here, they looked for advices on how to use low-cost sensors and discovered several useful resources [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] when trying to achieve high (or at least higher) quality data from low-cost sensor output.

REFERENCES concerning low-cost sensors:

[1] (PDF) An integrated assessment of the impacts of PM2.5 and black carbon particles on the air quality of a large Brazilian city (

[2] Giordano MR, Malings C, Pandis SN, Presto AA, McNeill VF, Westervelt DM, Beekmann M, Subramanian R. 2021. From low-cost sensors to high-quality data: A summary of challenges and best practices for effectively calibrating low-cost particulate matter mass sensors. Journal of Aerosol Science 158, 23 pp. Redirecting

[3] Jayaratne R, Liu X, Ahn KH, Asumadu-Sakyi A, Fisher G, Gao J, Mabon A, Mazaheri M, Mullins B, Nyaku M, Ristovski Z, Scorgie Y, Thai P, Dunbabin M, Morawska L. 2020. Low-cost PM2.5 sensors: An assessment of their suitability for various applications. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 520-532.

[4] Liang L, Daniels J. 2022. What influences low-cost sensor data calibration? - A systematic assessment of algorithms, duration, and predictor selection. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 22(9):1-16.

[5] Morawska L, Thai PK, Liu X, Asumadu-Sakui A, Ayoko G, Bartonova A, Bedini A, Chai F, Christensen B, Dunbabin M, Gao J, Hagler GSW, Jayaratne R, Kumar P, Lau AKH, Louie PKK, Mazaheri M, Ning Z, Motta N, Mullins B, Rahman MM, Ristovski Z, Shafiel M, Tjondronegoro D, Westerdahl D, Williams R. 2018. Applications of low-cost sensing technologies for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment: How far have they gone? Environ. Int. 116: 286-299. Redirecting

[6] WMO. 2021. An update of low-cost sensors for the measurement of atmospheric composition. Editor R. E. Peltier. Publisher: World Meteorological Organization, WMO-No. 1215, Switzerland. (accessed on 25 November 2022)